REMARKS: The hard, resistant Tuscarora quartzite (Silurian age) underlies Big Knob and forms the high peak; the site affords an excellent view of the Folded Appalachian Mountains. Little Knob (193) is a similar feature nearby. East Waterford Narrows (194) through Tuscarora Mountain is created by the erosion of Horse Valley Run.
REMARKS: The Juniata River is extremely picturesque at this location as it meanders through a valley of red shales and siltstones of the Catskill Formation (Late Devonian age) and olive-gray siltstones of the Trimmers Rock Formation (Late Devonian age).
Hickory Ridge to the south is underlain by the Montibello Sandstone Member of the Mahantango Formation (Middle Devonian age), a much more weather resistant rock; hence the high ridge.
A wide floodplain on the south bank of the river, produced by the buildup of sands and gravels on the inner shore of the meander, is a favorite site for summer cottages. Even though repeated floods have destroyed these homes, old and new residents continue to build and rebuild.
REFERENCE: Dyson, J. L. , Geology and mineral resources of the northern half of the New Bloomfield quadrangle, Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th ser., Atlas 137ab, 63 p.